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Guidelines for Impressions Contributors PDF Print E-mail


The manuscript (MS, MSS) must be accompanied by a cover sheet giving the author’s name, mailing and e-mailing addresses, and telephone and fax numbers. The sheet should include a brief biographical statement (not more than three sentences). The MS should be submitted as hard copy accompanied by photocopies of the illustrations (do not send photographs at this stage) and on a floppy disc or CD or as an email attachment in Microsoft Word format, addressed to: Editor, Impressions, Japanese Art Society of America, P.O. Box 524, Harwich Port, MA 02646.

After the manuscript is submitted to the editor-in-chief, it will be sent to anonymous readers for peer review. If accepted for publication, it may be returned to the author for revisions once or more at the discretion of the editor. Copyright of published articles is held by the Japanese Art Society of America, Inc.


For questions of style not specified below, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (University of Chicago Press). For spelling, refer to Webster's Third New International Dictionary (W3).

Foreign words Note that foreign terms sufficiently anglicized to appear in W3 are printed in roman type, not italic—e.g., netsuke, obi, shogun, Tokyo, kimono; but shin hanga, ehon. Keep Japanese words to a minimum. Define foreign words the first time they appear in the text. Translations in English appear in parentheses: ehon (illustrated book). Loose translations of words or terms should appear within quotation marks following the word “or” and a comma and with a subsequent defining phrase: surimono, or “printed thing,” a privately commissioned print.

English/Japanese: Wherever possible, give the English translation first, followed by the Japanese transliteration in parentheses. Note that an English translation following the Japanese is given in roman in parentheses, with only the first word and proper names capitalized.


Format: Use double spacing and the same size of type throughout. The notes follow the text (start a new page); the captions follow the notes (start a new page).

Page numbers: Number the pages consecutively at the top right.

Internal spacing: Leave one word space only following all punctuation (period, comma, colon, semicolon) with the exception of the em-dash, which is closed up.

Serial comma: Do not use a comma after the item preceding and in a series of items (Tom, Dick and Harry).

Margins: Leave a right-hand margin of not less than 1½ inch and margins on the other three sides of 1 inch.

Justification: Do not justify lines at the right; do not break words/names at the end of lines.

Paragraphs: Indent paragraphs (use the tab) after the first paragraph and the second following a subhead/line space (first paragraph under subhead should start flush left).

Subheads: Subheads and breaks indicated in the text by a line space should be used sparingly.

Titles: Titles of works of art, books, periodicals, etc., take italics; use italicss; use the italic mode in Microsoft Word. Titles of articles, dissertations, poems, etc., are in roman inside double quotation marks. Titles of organizations are in roman, capitalized Western-style whether in English or Japanese. Short forms of titles may be used after the first mention in text.

Dates: November 7, 2001 (American style); November 2001. Give life dates in parentheses following the first mention of a name. Life dates within a century repeat the first two digits: Utagawa Hiroshige II (1826–1869). All other dates within a century are inclusive: Bunka era (1804–18), except as in 1900–1905. Use c. for circa in notes and captions only; in text, say about or around. In text, do not use shortened form for decades (1770s not ’70s).

To convert Japanese dates to Western dates, use a calendrical conversion table. Bunka 1.1.1, for example, is February 11, 1804 (not 1804.1.1 and not the first month of 1804).

Numbers: In text, spell out from one to one hundred and round numbers (three hundred/thousand) thereafter. Express other numbers in numerals. (For numerous exceptions and special cases, see Chapter 9 of The Chicago Manual.)

Centuries: In text, spell out: fourteenth century (n.), fourteenth-century (adj.); mid-fourteenth century (n.), mid-fourteenth-century (adj.); early/late fourteenth century (n.), early/late fourteenth-century (adj.). In notes and captions, use numerals: 14th century (n.), 14th-century (adj.), etc.

Inclusive numbers (as in dates, page references, etc.): Use digits up to 100 and when first number ends in 00 (100-109). Thereafter, use last two (or more) digits: 100–10, 321–25, 450–72. Use the en-dash as here for inclusive numbers (see Symbols below).

Measurements: Give as cm (no period), height first.

Symbols: In Microsoft Word, the following symbols are all accessible under “Insert/Symbol.”

Diacritical marks: Be sure to insert macrons (Shikō), accents (père, déçu, Müller), etc., where required. For the long vowel in Japanese, use the straight line, not the circumflex, above the vowel: ō.

Dashes: Use the em-dash with no spacing on either side for the parenthetical remarks. (For example: He took the bus—it was raining heavily—as far as the library.) Use the en-dash, also closed up, for inclusive numbers, as for 1655–60, pls. 15–20 (see Numbers above). The em and en dashes are accessible from the Microsoft Word tool bar under “Insert/Symbol.”


Please keep notes to a minimum (for styling, see below). Notes will appear as endnotes (not footnotes) placed at the end each paper.

In text, signal notes in superscript Arabic numerals following the punctuation at the end of the sentence, not in the middle of a sentence.

Use the endnote insertion program in Microsoft Word, accessible under “Insert/Reference.” It will permit automatic renumbering in case a note is added or deleted.

Refer to publications in full once only; thereafter use the author's surname and a short form of the title, in English or Japanese as the case may be.

strong>Japanese authors: In the full citation, follow the order of the names given by the publication. In shortened form, use the surnames only as in English. In the case of two authors with the same surname, use both surname and given name (Suzuki Miyoko; Suzuki Chizuko).

Japanese titles: In the full citation, the Japanese should be followed by the English translation in roman in parentheses (only the first word and proper names are capitalized). If a work has titles in two languages, include them as they appear on the title page separated by a slash: Yokohama ukiyoe/Reflection of the Culture of Yokohama in Days of the Port Opening.

The following examples show book and article citations in endnotes in long and short forms. For a book that is part of a series, see example 3 below, where the series title is not typed in italics. Note that publication data appear in parentheses, that a comma follows publication data of books and that a colon follows date in parentheses of periodicals. The words “pages” and the abbreviation “pp.” are not used.

1. Book (long): Helen Merritt, Modern Japanese Woodblock Prints: The Early Years

(Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1990), 104–5.

2. Article (long): Tanaka Takako, “Josei no yūrei ga ōi no wa naze ka ” (Why are there many female ghosts?), Bessatsu Taiyō 98 (Summer 1997): 44–47.

3. Series: Takeda Tsuneo, Kano Eitoku, Nihon no bijutsu (Arts of Japan), 94 (Tokyo: Shibundō, 1974), 55.

4. Book (short): Merritt, Modern Japanese Woodblock Prints, 116–17.

5. Article (short): Tanaka, “Josei noyūrei ga ōi no wa naze ka,” 45.


The author is responsible for furnishing photographs suitable for publication, made if possible from the work of art itself, as well as for obtaining the necessary letters of permission to reproduce them. Note:Impressions is published by subscription on WilsonWeb (The H.W. Wilson Co.). Be sure to mention this when you request permission to publish.

Permission must include electronic publication rights:

Prints should show full margins wherever possible.

We request either a 4 x 5 inch color transparency or an 8 x 10 inch high-resolution digital file (at least 300dpi) of the objects you are illustrating.

If a detail has to be cropped or there is any doubt about the direction of an image, supply a photocopy clearly marked.

Number the illustrations consecutively as they are referred to in the text. Text references to illustrations should be placed at the end of the sentence whenever feasible. If more than one work of art is mentioned in a sentence, the figure reference should appear at the end of the relevant phrase/clause.

Captions: Follow the sequence of illustrations as referred to in the text. Add photo credits at the end of each caption as requested by the person/institution granting permission to reproduce the image; and send photocopies of all such permissions to the Editor. Give the dimensions whenever possible. If the dimensions of a print or a printed book are not known, use the Japanese term, as: ōban, hanshibon.

In styling captions, refer to the following samples (note that a caption does not take a closing period).

Tokuriki Tomikichirō. Foundation Pillar of the Entire World under One Roof, MiyazakiMiyazaki hakkōichiu motohashira), from the series Collected Prints of Scenic Places (Seichi shiseki meishō hangashū). 1942. Color woodcut. 26.3 x 38.2 cm. Private Collection. Photo: John Deane

Anonymous. The Tale of the Taking of the Jewel (Tamatori monogatari). Late 1670s. Woodcut, hand-painted diptych. 52.7 x 30.2 cm each. Worcester Art Museum, John Chandler Bancroft Collection

Okumura Masanobu. Ichikawa Danjūrō II as Ike no Shōji. 1725. Woodcut, handcolored. 31.8 x 15.9 cm. Clarence Buckingham Collection, The Art Insitute of Chicago, 1925.1830. Photography © The Art Institute of Chicago

Okumura Masanobu. Onoe Kikugorō as Soga no Gorō. c. 1747–50. Woodcut, handcolored. 69.3 x 26 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, William Sturgis Bigelow Collection, 11.13339. Photograph © 2009 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Munakata Shikō. Amulet of Fudō of Plentiful Merits (Tako Fudō-son onfusatsu). 1943. Woodcut. 41.5 x 15.7 cm. From Munakata Shikō zenshū/The complete work of Munakata Shikō (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1977), vol. 3, fig. 162

Note that life dates of artists are not repeated in the captions (see Dates above re: life dates).